This chapter presents four specific aspects of image processing. First, ways to characterize the spatial resolution are discussed. This describes the minimum size an object must be to be seen in an image. Second, the signal-to-noise ratio is examined, explaining how faint an object can be and still be detected. Third, morphological techniques are introduced. These are nonlinear operations used to manipulate binary images (where each pixel is either black or white). Fourth, the remarkable technique of computed tomography is described. This has revolutionized medical diagnosis by providing detailed images of the interior of the human body.